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Berlin Part I
1. The Lest We Forget Study Seminar viewing the outdoor exhibit of the Topography of Terror
2. Photographic display of badges worn by inmates in the ghettos and concentration camps of the Third Reich.
3. Photography display of early persecutions against Jews by the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1939.
4. German scholar, Annegret Ehmann, addressing members of the study seminar at the Topography of Terror.
5. The Martin Gropius Building, which housed the Gestapo compound and the Main Security Office(RSHA) of Heydrich, located adjacent to the outdoor exhibit and incorporated as part of the Topography of Terror.
6. Remnant of the Berlin Wall which has been incorporated into the Topography of Terror.
7. View of the front entrance of the Wannsee Conference Villa.
8. View of the rear facade of the Wannsee Conference Villa.
9. View of the Wannsee Lake from the back porch of the Wannsee Conference Villa.
10. Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell speaks with Israeli Ambassador to Germany, Mr. Shimon Stein, in front of the Wannsee Conference Villa. Also pictured are Annegret Ehmann( rear) and Dr. Nechama Tec.
11. All members of the study seminar with the Israeli Ambassador to Germany .
12. A sculpture by John Haertfield in memory of the women and children deported to the ghettos and camps at the site of the former Jewish Cemetery of Berlin.
13. The Rosenstrasse Memorial, a sculpture by Ingeborg Hunzinger, stands at the site of the successful 1943 demonstration by Aryan wives demanding the release of their Jewish husbands rounded up by the Nazis.
14. Women who participated in the MAHG Women in the Holocaust seminar, pose in front of the Rosenstrasse Memorial. (left to right) Marion Brakeman, Gail Herring Stinger, Ann Marie Osaki, Evelyn Heron(back ) Kathleen Allison, Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell, Sherri Liepe, Chris Aibel.
15. Study seminar approaching the Museum of Otto Weidt, a Righteous Gentile. The museum was created by East German students after the reunification of Germany. 16a. Stove used to heat the broom factory of Otto Weidt. 16b. Study seminar member, Revered Ed Carll behind the hidden doorway which served as entrance to the secret room where Jews were hidden by Weidt. 17 Picture of the Jews hidden by Weidt.
18. Scholars accompanying the study seminar in Berlin. Left to right: Dr. Ulie Geldbach, Annegret Ehmann, Dr. Nechama Tec, Dr. Franklin Littell, Dr. Erich Geldbach.
19. Scholars pictured at the head table as members of the study seminar share dinner in Berlin.
20. Window of Grunewald Train Station in Berlin. It was from here the Jews of Berlin were deported to ghettos ad camps.
21. Sculptured wall on the path followed by the deportee on the approach to the Grunewald Station platform, which is a memorial monument today. The images of the shadows of men women and children as they passed along the cobblestone hill to their fate, are hollowed out and appear frozen in time.
22. Members of the study seminar walking on the platform at the Grunewald Train Station deportation site.
23. Inscription in platform at the Grunewald deportation site indicating the deportation of Jews from Berlin to Bergen Belsen as late as April 1945.
24. Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell addressing the study seminar members at the hotel in Berlin.
25. Annegret Ehmann giving a lecture to the seminar participants at the hotel in Berlin.
26. Entrance to the Court of Honor , part of a building complex which was once housed the high command of the Whermacht, the army of HitlerÕs Third Reich.
27. Annegret Ehmann explaining to the members of the seminar the events surrounding the execution of the some participants in the failed attempt to assassinate Hitler on July 20, 1944. The plaque marks the site of those executions.
28. Picture of the front entrance of the former Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute(1927-1945). The second director of this division was the father of Dr. Joseph Mengele, the Angel of Death of Auschwitz. The elder Mengele served as an assistant for his sonÕs infamous twin research.
29. Annegret Ehmann on the steps of the building which once house the Heredity and Eugenics Institute discussing its history with members of the study seminar. Today the building is part of the Free UniversityÕs with classes in political science. Picture here are Doug Stinger( against the wall) and Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell listening intently.
30. Built in 1866, the Moorish style Oranienburgerstrasse Synagogue which was once the heart of Jewish life in Berlin was attacked and burned on Kristallnacht, November 9-10, 1938. Its distinctive Ò Golden DomeÓ was saved form total destruction in the fire by a Berlin policeman. By warÕs end, the synagogue was destroyed. Restoration began in 1988 and today it is no longer used as a house of worship but contains a permanent exhibit dealing with its history and aspects of Jewish life in Berlin before the Nazi era.
Berlin Part II/ Sachsenhausen
31. Annegret Ehmann the art project at Bayrischer Platz, site of the Bavarian Quarter which once had a considerable Jewish population. In the project signs are attached to street poles, one side displaying a graphic symbol and the opposite side identifying the specific edit restricting the lives of Berlin's Jews with the date of enactment. 32a. A graphic of musical notes. 32b. Edict enacted August 16, 1933, stating that Jews can no longer participate in organized choral groups. 33a. Graphic of a printerÕs block. 33b. Edict stating that by December of 1938 all Jewish printers and booksellers must close their doors and cease to operate. 34a. Graphic of a park bench. 34b. After 1939, Jews were no longer allowed to use parks or sit on park benches. 35a. Graphic of a loaf of bread. 35b. Edict enacted July 4, 1940, stating that Jews are only allowed to shop for groceries between 4 and 5 P.M.
36. Study seminar entering Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, located north of Berlin and established in 1936.
37. Arbeit Macht Frei, Ò Work will make you free,Ó carved into the entrance gate of Sachsenhausen. This was a mendacious phrase popular with the Nazis and written on the gates many of their most infamous camps.
38. Study seminar listening to English speaking guide, a law student from Austria completing his compulsory service as a member of the staff at Sachsenhausen Memorial. The exhibit on the table is a model of the camp which was carefully designed by the Nazis to ensure maximum and efficient control over the inmates. Members of the seminar pictured are from left to right: Dr. Nechama Tec, Chris Aibel, Linda Mulvihill, Rich Sless, Terumi Osaki, Rae Cutler.
39. Cell were Reverend Martin Niemoeller was held in solitary confinement while imprisoned at Sachsenhausen as an enemy of the state for his outspoken resistance to the Nazi regime.
40. Towering monument to the prisoners of Sachsenhausen erected by the Communist government of East Germany after the war. Note that the only triangles displayed on this monument are red. In the Nazi system of identification and classification, a red triangle identified a political prisoner. Hence, the Communist government of East Germany effectively rewrote history by implying only the political prisoners/anti-fascists/socialists were victims of Nazi oppression.
41. Statue depicting the Sonderkommandos also erected by the Communists in the ruins of the crematoria at Sachsenhausen.
42. Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell being interviewed by a CNN crew from Korea at the site of the crematoria ruins.
Warsaw Treblinka and Ciechanou
43. Monument to the Warsaw Ghetto Fighters.
44. Replica of sewer cover at the Warsaw Ghetto memorial.
45. Rabbi Murray Kohn in front of a remnant of the wall that enclosed the Warsaw Ghetto.
46. Wall at the Jewish cemetery in present day Warsaw which was built after the war using remnants of Jewish headstones found throughout Poland. 47a. Plaque with the poem dedicated to "The Little Smuggler." 47b. Memorial to the children who were murdered by the Nazis.
48. Janus Korczak Memorial Statue in the present day Jewish Warsaw cemetery. The Memorial to the Children 49a. Memorial wall in Warsaw surrounding the site of the Umschlagplatz. 49b. Plaque memorializing the deportation site of over 300,000 Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto.
50. Wall marking the entrance to the memorial site of the Treblinka Death Camp
51. Stone Monument , center piece of the 17,00 stone memorial in Treblinka. It was erected over the site of the crematoria.
52. Close up of carved figures on the stone monument over the site of the Treblinka crematoria.
53. Janus Korczak Memorial Stone, the only one of the 17,000 stones dedicated to to an individual.
54. The site of open pits, known as ÒRoasting Pits,Ó where bodies were burned in before the installation of the crematoria at Treblinka.
55. Rabbi Kohn approaches the Castle of Ciechanow, in his hometown, where, in 1943, he, his family, and the Jews of Ciechanow were incarcerated before deportation to Auschwitz.
56. Picture from 1943 of the Jews taken into the Castle at Ciechanow before their deportation to Auschwitz.
57. Members of the seminar, who accompanied Dr. Kohn to Ciechanow, pictured with him in front of the castle.
Lublin and Majdanek
58. Dr. Nechama Tec and her friend, a Polish historian, explaining to the members of seminar the history of Lublin at the old Yeshiva which still stands and operates in that city .
59. Roll call area at Majdanek.
60. Barracks at Majdanek.
61. Guard House overseeing prisoner barracks in Majdanek. 62a. The tortoise sculpture created by Majdanek inmates as a "decorative piece," was really a symbol of resistance conveying the message, work for the Nazis, but Ò go slow.Ó 62b. Lizard sculpture created by Majdanek inmates as a "decorative piece "which was really a symbol of resistance because the lizard was the sign of the Polish Underground. 62c. Another Òdecorative pieceÓ created by inmates, the Eagle sculpture symbolizes imprisoned men, women and children and the hope for freedom. Ashes of some murdered prisoners were secretly hidden in the base by the fellow inmates. 63a. ÒShowers headsÓ in the experimental gas chamber of Majdanek. 63b. Small room adjacent to the gas chamber, equipped with carbon monoxide gas tanks and a viewing window so that a technician could monitor the gassing process. 64a. Rows of cages containing the shoes worn by the prisoners murdered at Majdanek. 64b. Rae Cutler walking through the rows of cages containing shoes of murdered prisoners. 64c. A member of the study seminar photographed here, appears to be emerging from the depths of despair represented by the cages of shoes of thousands of inmates collected during the Nazi era.
65. Monument to those who perished during the "Harvest Festival" at Majdanek.
66. The row of ovens used to cremate bodies of those who were murdered at Majdanek.
67. View of the crematorium, with the prominent chimney, as seen from the steps of the Memorial Mausoleum.
68. Memorial Mausoleum to those who perished at Majdanek erected by the Soviets after liberation in 1944 which contains human ashes found in the camp
69. Sun shines through the roof of Memorial Mausoleum on the human ashes which were gathered from Majdanek.
70. Reverend Ed Carll kneeling in prayer in front of the mound of human ashes contained in the Mausoleum.
Krakow and Auschwitz/Birkenau
71. Entrance to the Remuah Synagogue in Krakow.
72. Centuries old Jewish Cemetery behind the Remuah Synagogue.
73. Remnants of the walls erected by the Nazis to encircled the Krakow Ghetto, the top of the wall was shaped like a headstone.
74. The gate in front of Oskar Schindler's factory.
75. Monument at the site of the former Plaszow labor camp just outside of the city of Krakow.
76. Arbeit Macht Frei sign on the gate at the entrance of Auschwitz.
77. Rabbi Murray Kohn, child survivor of Auschwitz, leading the study seminar on a tour of the camp.
78. Rabbi Murray Kohn and Dr. Nechama Tec, both survivors of the Holocaust standing in front of Block 6, where Rabbi Kohn had been imprisoned as a twelve year old.
79. Participants of the study seminar on steps of Block 11.
80. Execution site adjacent to the infamous Block 11, which contained torture cells.
81. Standing Box/Dark Cell used to torture inmates in Block 11.
82. Train tracks leading from the entrance of Birkenau (Auschwitz II) with platform where deportees disembarked from the cattle cars on the right. 83a. Forest of chimneys at Birkenau where barracks housing thousands of inmates once stood. 83b. Reconstructed barracks in Birkenau rebuild using material from barracks throughout Birkenau.
84. Rabbi Kohn standing in front of the remnants of the gas chambers and crematoria blown up by the SS before they abandoned Birkenau in the face of the advancing Soviet Army in 1945.
85. Remains of stairs and entrance into the undressing room where men women and children disrobed before entering the gas chamber disguised as showers in Birkenau.
86. Rabbi Kohn and members of the study seminar saying the Kaddish at the remnants of the gas chamber and crematoria. 87a. Warning plaque in front of a monument erected after the war to remind all to remember the past. 87b. Survivor, Joseph Komito, kneels before the plaque as he remembers family members who perished in the Holocaust. 87c. Joseph Komito exiting the memorial at Birkenau.
88. A young Polish boy peers at the infamous train tracks leading to the platform where millions first stepped foot in Birkenau .
89. Rabbi Kohn embraces members of an Israeli youth group on their pilgrimage in Auschwitz/Birkenau. 90a. Study seminar experiencing Klezmer music that was once the mainstay of Jewish life in Poland.
91. Sunset as the Study Seminar leaves Poland and heads towards Prague.
Prague and Terezin
92. Study Tour making its way through Golden Lane in Prague.
93. Members of the study seminar on the balcony of Prague Castle. Front row left to right: Kathleen Allison, Marion Brakeman, Barbara Pordy, Ellen Wetzel, Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell, Gail Herring Stinger, Ann Marie Osaki, Linda Mulvihill. Second row left to right: April Borisowitz, Neil Rosenberg, Lou Ann Gable, Sheri Liepe, Rich Sless 94a. Prague's centuries old Jewish Cemetery 94b. Neil Rosenberg giving his book review about Rabbi Yehudah Loevy ben Bezalel (the Maharal), buried in Prague's Jewish Cemetery. Rabbi Loevy was a 16th century Rabbi of Prague who created the concept of the Golem to protect Jews from persecution
95. Dr. Jan Munk, Director of Terezin greets the study seminar participants. Left to right: Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell, Dr. Jan Munk, Director of Terezin, Rabbi Kohn and Dean Kenneth Dollarhide 96a. Cemetery site outside walls of Terezin. This section is dedicated to the Christians who perished in Terezin. 96b. Jewish Star, which was made of railroad tracks marks the cemetery section dedicated to the Jews who perished in Terezin. 97a +b. The bulwarks of the 18th century walled town of Terezin transformed by Nazis into a ghetto, concentration camp and transit camp for European Jews. A "model ghettoÓ visited by the Red Cross.
98. Glass sculptures of heads embedded in the ground with face masks anchored by barbed wire erected after the war at the entrance of Terezin.
99. Arbeit Macht Frei sign on the entrance to the fortress ghetto of Terezin.
100. Plaque at the Terezin Memorial, which lists concentration and death camps. Rabbi Murray Kohn is pointing to Auschwitz and Buchenwald two camps in which he had been a prisoner.
101. The enclosed area where bodies of those who perished at Terezin were kept before cremation.
102. View of the buildings of Terezin, which now functions as a garrison town serving the army of the Czech Republic.
103. Charlotte Opfermann, survivor of Terezin, explaining to members the study seminar about her experience in the ghetto during the Holocaust. She stands in the courtyard of the Hamburger Barrack, where she and her mother were imprisoned for two years.
104. Charlotte Opfermann and Rabbi Kohn reminiscing in front of Charlotte's barracks. 105 a. Charlotte Opfermann leads the study seminar through the airless attic where she and her mother lived with thousands of other women during their time in Terezin. Dr. Cyla Trocki Videll stands on the support beam. 106 a+b. Ventilation system of the attic for the thousands of women forced to live there.
107. Beams where inmates drove pilfered nails or pieces of metal to serve as hooks for clothing to keep it away from the rats and pigeons who shared their space.
108. Memorial to those who perished when the Czech Christian town of Lidice was razed in retaliation for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich.
109. Statute created by sculptors Marie Uchytilova and Jiri Hampl to memorialize the 82 children of Lidice who were gassed by the Nazis.
110. Memorial statue of a mother weeping as a child holds onto her at the site of the school that was destroyed during the Nazi destruction of Lidice.
111. Study seminar members pictured with Tomas Jelnik, former assistant to Czech President, Vaclav Havel. Mr. Jelnik presently serves as head of the Jewish Community in Prague. Setting is the centuries old Jewish Court of Prague. Pictured left to right: Marion Brakeman, Barbara Pordy, AnnLin Glasser, Dr. Franklin Littell, Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell, Tomas Jelnik, Gail Herring Stinger, Dean Kenneth Dollarhide, Haviv Trocki Videll, Rabbi Murray Kohn, Doug Cervi, Matt Carr.
112. At he final seminar session of the trip, Dr. Marcia Sachs Littell talks with survivor Joseph Komito as he shares his feelings with the members of the study seminar about returning to his home town and the camps where he had been incarcerated.